The Fon Tacer lab has published a new review article on the role of MAGEL2 in hypothalamic function!


Intracellular protein trafficking and sorting are extremely arduous in endocrine and neuroendocrine cells, which synthesize and secrete on-demand substantial quantities of proteins. To ensure that neuroendocrine secretion operates correctly, each step in the secretion pathways is tightly regulated and coordinated both spatially and temporally. At the trans-Golgi network (TGN), intrinsic structural features of proteins and several sorting mechanisms and distinct signals direct newly synthesized proteins into proper membrane vesicles that enter either constitutive or regulated secretion pathways. Furthermore, this anterograde transport is counterbalanced by retrograde transport, which not only maintains membrane homeostasis but also recycles various proteins that function in the sorting of secretory cargo, formation of transport intermediates, or retrieval of resident proteins of secretory organelles. The retromer complex recycles proteins from the endocytic pathway back to the plasma membrane or TGN and was recently identified as a critical player in regulated secretion in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, melanoma antigen protein L2 (MAGEL2) was discovered to act as a tissue-specific regulator of the retromer-dependent endosomal protein recycling pathway and, by doing so, ensures proper secretory granule formation and maturation. MAGEL2 is a mammalian-specific and maternally imprinted gene implicated in Prader-Willi and Schaaf-Yang neurodevelopmental syndromes. In this review, we will briefly discuss the current understanding of the regulated secretion pathway, encompassing anterograde and retrograde traffic. Although our understanding of the retrograde trafficking and sorting in regulated secretion is not yet complete, we will review recent insights into the molecular role of MAGEL2 in hypothalamic neuroendocrine secretion and how its dysregulation contributes to the symptoms of Prader-Willi and Schaaf-Yang patients. Given that the activation of many secreted proteins occurs after they enter secretory granules, modulation of the sorting efficiency in a tissue-specific manner may represent an evolutionary adaptation to environmental cues.

Read the full article here:

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